October 2021
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Report: Haze Outlook 2021

22 Jun Report: Haze Outlook 2021

Download the report here.


The Haze Outlook 2021 Report provides a risk assessment of the probability of a severe transboundary haze incident affecting Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore in 2021. The haze is a recurring air pollution problem in Southeast Asia caused by forest and land fires, posing serious health hazards and contributing significantly to climate change. The Report is produced by the Singapore Institute of International Affairs (SIIA) with information from several sources and through engagements with our many stakeholders. Our risk assessment is based on three factors: weather (projected rainfall and temperature), peat (land management policies), and people (human behaviour).


This is the third annual edition of the Haze Outlook. Our inaugural report was released at the 6th Singapore Dialogue on Sustainable World Resources, organised in May 2019 by the SIIA. The Haze Outlook 2021 Report comprises not only research and analysis but also builds on the SIIA’s ongoing engagement with sustainability stakeholders in the region. A total of 25 stakeholders were interviewed and consulted for this report, representing a cross-section of government bodies, financial institutions, businesses, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and academics.


The authors are Aaron Choo, Senior Assistant Director (Special Projects and Sustainability), SIIA, Khor Yu Leng, Associate Fellow (Sustainability), SIIA, Siti Bazilah, Senior Executive (Sustainability), SIIA, and Nadirah Sharif, Research Associate, Segi Enam Advisors. The report was edited by Meixi Gan, Deputy Director (Sustainability), SIIA, with feedback from Chen Chen Lee, Senior Fellow, SIIA, and directed by Simon Tay, Chairman, SIIA and Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore. All views expressed in the report are those of the authors, unless otherwise credited.